Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror (New Approaches to African History)
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Foreign Intervention in Africa chronicles the foreign political and military interventions in Africa during the periods of decolonization (1956-1975) and the Cold War (1945-1991), as well as during the periods of state collapse (1991-2001) and the "global war on terror" (2001-2010). In the first two periods, the most significant intervention was extra-continental. The United States, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and the former colonial powers entangled themselves in countless African conflicts. During the period of state collapse, the most consequential interventions were intra-continental. African governments, sometimes assisted by powers outside the continent, supported warlords, dictators, and dissident movements in neighboring countries and fought for control of their neighbors' resources. The global war on terror, like the Cold War, increased the foreign military presence on the African continent and generated external support for repressive governments. In each of these cases, external interests altered the dynamics of Africa's internal struggles, escalating local conflicts into larger conflagrations, with devastating effects on African peoples.
(http://www.allafrica.com) distributes news from Africa, posting more than 1,000 stories in English and French each day and offering more than 900,000 articles in its digital archive; “Southern Africa Liberation History” (http://www.noeasyvictories.org/search/smartsearch1.php) provides links to important digital archives around the world that focus on Southern African liberation struggles; the National Security Archive (http://www.nsarchive.org) provides access to declassified U.S. government
irrelevant. When Moscow called for Hammarskjöld's resignation and for the restructuring of the Secretariat to give more power to socialist and nonaligned countries, African and Asian countries withheld their support. Ghana, Guinea, and the United Arab Republic, the most radical African UN members, were outspoken in their condemnation of UN actions in the Congo and vociferous in their support of Lumumba. However, they were not willing to court Western opprobrium by siding with the Soviet Union on
States and Italy provided bombers and transport planes, while military equipment was furnished by South Africa and the United States. Because the Congo had no air force, the donated planes were piloted by South African and European mercenaries, along with anti-Castro Cuban veterans of the Bay of Pigs operation, recruited and paid for by the CIA. By August 1964, Lumumbist rebels controlled more than one-third of the country. The following month, they established a People's Republic with
and the United States (1960–90) South Africa was the economic linchpin of the Southern African region. Built on a system of migratory labor and impoverished ethnic reserves, dubbed African “homelands,” South Africa's cheap labor economy and mineral wealth attracted billions of dollars in foreign investments. Although South Africa was a British dominion from 1910 to 1961, the Afrikaner-dominated government maintained an often tense relationship with Britain, especially after the establishment of
badly. Its early postindependence governments were marked by corruption, clan rivalry, and disputes over the country's expansionist goals. Somalia's second president, Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, was assassinated in October 1969. Less than a week later, Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, commander in chief of the Somali army, seized power in a military coup. In 1970, following the expulsion of a number of American diplomats, military attachés, and the Peace Corps, the United States terminated all