Pathology of Australian Native Wildlife
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Pathology of Australian Native Wildlife brings together in one volume all of the available information on the anatomical pathology of Australian native vertebrate wildlife, excluding fish. It provides rapid access to documented information on diseases in Australian wildlife, domiciled in Australia as well as overseas, and will facilitate accurate diagnosis.
The book comprises 45 chapters, each detailing pathological changes found in diseases caused by particular aetiological agents such as viruses, bacteria and nematode parasites in terrestrial and marine mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Although the aim is to describe morphological (gross and microscopic) changes, an attempt has also been made to indicate history and clinical signs that might suggest a particular disease, aetiological agent or pathological process, thus providing guidance as to which lesions should be searched for, and what ancillary testing might be needed to confirm a diagnosis.
Illustrated throughout with color photographs, this will be an invaluable reference for veterinary pathologists and clinicians, as well as wildlife researchers, zoos and wildlife parks, environmentalists and conservationists, and students.
animal, however, are not often observed (Reddacliff 1981). In one study of diseases of the bilby, ringworm was observed more often in males than females (Wilson 1984). 163 Figure 12.10 Koala: dermatomycosis. (Courtesy of P. Canﬁeld) Clinical signs In kangaroos ringworm may present as an area of alopecia with minor reddening of the skin and little else (Finnie 1978a). Two forms of the disease are recognised in macropod joeys and other young marsupials. In the classic form there are discrete,
identiﬁed as macrophages, and special (Feulgen) staining conﬁrms the presence of DNA in inclusions. Inclusions may also be intranuclear; in studies of spontaneous cases of PBFD cytoplasmic inclusions were within macrophages, nuclear inclusions Figure 4.3 Sulphur-crested cockatoo: psittacine beak and feather disease. Developing rachis and barb ridges. Note necrotic cells, disorderly appearance of basal and intermediate layers of epithelium and dark granular cytoplasmic inclusion (centre).
pain on palpation. Sometimes such otitis was secondary to pinna wounds. Although pouch epithelium in the koala is normally regarded as a hostile environment for microbial colonisation (Osawa et al. 1992), severe dermatitis of the pouch lining with death of the koala joey (pouch death syndrome) may be due to Ps. aeruginosa infection, with other bacteria including Ps. ﬂuorescens, E. coli, Klebsiella sp. and Proteus sp. sometimes also involved. The young koala so affected may be found dead on the
conditions, serious and fatal disease may occur (Rose 1999). Such conditions include cold weather, malnutrition or change of food, stress of capture and other procedures, and related immunosuppression (Presidente 1982b; Rose 1999). Captive animals are especially at risk. Yersiniosis may occur as part of a dual infection; concurrent toxoplasmosis and yersiniosis with enteritis was diagnosed in a captive eastern grey kangaroo that died suddenly (Ladds, own observation). Yersiniosis is described in
of P. Presidente) results indicating Borrelia spp. infection, the presence of Lyme disease remains to be proven. Limited testing of Australian native rats, bandicoots and an agile (brown) antechinus provided no evidence of infection with borreliae in Australia (Russell et al. 1994; Russell 1995). Overseas, however, and (perhaps importantly) prior to demonstration of a viral aetiology of chorioretinitis in macropods in Australia (Hooper et al. 1999; Reddacliff et al. 1999), B. burgdorferi was