Philosophy of the Film: Epistemology, Ontology, Aesthetics
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Examines the overlap between film and philosophy in three distinct ways: epistemological issues in film-making and viewing; aesthetic theory and film; and film as a medium of philosophical expression.
line readings are always hardboiled, ignoring the ends of sentences and delivered in a rhythmic monotone, slightly lisped. These mannerisms draw attention. The two other principal male characters are Claude Rains as Louis, the Chief of Police, and Paul Henreid as Victor Laszlo. Laszlo is always presented as right and brave, but also as intense and humourless, whether facing the fact of his wife’s infidelity or in crossing swords with Germans. He radiates goodness; he embodies the values
comprehensive and better framework. 4.1 MUNSTERBERG One philosopher, and one philosopher only, has an excuse for not engaging in debate, not referring to predecessors or contemporaries, but simply getting on with rumination on his problems. That 69 philosopher is the first to write on these topics. Being the first, he has no intellectual obligations to others, since they do not exist. That figure in the philosophy of film is Hugo Munsterberg. Munsterberg’s The Photoplay: A Psychological
logically weak and plausible only if the guessing strikes you as correct. 97 Even Bazin’s history of recent painting is speculative. The quest for realism in painting continued long after photography appeared (1823), and I am referring to illusion, not to ‘true realism’. Trompel’oeil and photographic realism emerge as schools as recently as this century. The trouble here is that the other prong of the argument, that from photography, while not relying on pseudohistory, relies on
a readymade metaphor for lost innocence. We gaze into a world of people conscious of themselves but unconscious of us, therefore reflective to a limited degree. The power and flexibility of the medium emerges as, at first playfully and ever more seriously, film, without breaking its conventions, becomes able to portray the process of its own 133 experiencing. Characters talk to the audience, pull the edges of the frame over towards them, push the ‘The End’ title back off in order to have
the idea has been discovered. The checks on work putatively taken as science are: can it be tested? Has it been tested? And, how do things stand with it after the tests? Negative reports on any of these three are grounds for it not taking scientific status. Why can we not apply exactly the same reasoning to art? The creative individual is not sufficient and may not even be necessary—who can say what form art will take in the future? Obviously training in art school does not legitimate. Such