Smither's Mammals of Southern Africa: A Field Guide
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This is the latest update of the Smithers' field guide to Southern African Mammals. It includes the latest research results from the African bush, and the newest species names and classifications, all written in non-technical language. With full color illustrations, distribution maps, tracks and scale drawings, and descriptions of appearance, size, habitat, diet, life history, behaviour and conservation, it is the most detailed and accurate southern African mammals field guide available, and will be useful to everyone from game viewing safari-goers to professional wildlife guides. This is the mammals guide for people who are serious about wildlife.
creepers and foliage. Very agile climbers and leapers, forage in tall trees 30–50 m above ground; less at home on the ground. Solitary and territorial; male territories overlap those of females. Fruit trees may attract small aggregations. Give a loud hoot as a long-range spacing call; ‘meow’ in threat. Conservation Like all forest dwellers, tree civets suffer from loss and fragmentation of their habitat when forest is cleared for agriculture. IUCN Red List Least Concern. Family Viverridae
into large protected areas. They move into forest but do poorly if they have to stay there without access to grassland, as in the Knysna forests. They are dependent on water but can move up to 80 km from it. Their ability to move long distances enables them to use several different habitats within a wide area and to move through habitats that provide no resources, e.g. arid rocky areas between food and water in the Kaokoveld. African (savanna) elephant Diet Elephants eat any plant material:
rainfall; ranges are larger in wet years than dry ones. Bulls have larger ranges than cows in the Kruger National Park (200–1 700 km2). In northern Namibia, daily movements are determined by the locality of food and water. During severe drought elephants move an average of 54 km, and up to a maximum of 68 km, in 24 hours. An elephant’s ears make up 20% of its total skin surface area and up to 12 litres of blood per minute flows through the network of large blood vessels just under the thin skin
distributed in the same sort of habitat further north. Diet Freshly sprouting reeds and rushes, especially papyrus and papyrus flowers. Also graze sedges and browse on trees, bushes, ferns and forbs. Life history Single young are born in January–February in the western Okavango, June–July in eastern Caprivi. Wean at 4–5 months. Leopards, lions and wild dogs take sitatunga while they are on dry land, crocodiles catch them in the water. Behaviour Active at any time of the day or night except the
70 cm; weight males 54 kg (up to 60 kg), females 43 kg (up to 48 kg). See scale drawing on p. 280. Cheetah Habitat Open grassland and savanna woodland, extending into arid areas. Avoid forest and woodland with thick undergrowth. Seasonally independent of surface water; they drink the blood and urine of their prey and eat tsama melons (Citrullus lanatus). Diet Small to medium-sized antelope, mostly weighing less than 40 kg, e.g. impala, steenbok, springbok, common duiker; also take smaller