Ways of Worldmaking
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Required reading at more than 100 colleges and universities throughout North America.
1 and 2), knowl· edge of the origin of a work, even if obtained by chemical analysis or other purely scientific means, informs the way the work is to be looked at or listened to or read, providing a basis for the discovery of nonobvious ways the work differs from and resembles other works. Indeed the perceptual discovery of a style must usually start from prior identification of works representing an artist or school. Thus attributions however ef· fected contribute to the understanding of works
circum stances and not at others, so an object may be a work of art at some times and not at others_ Indeed, just by virtue of functioning as a symbol in a certain way does an object become, while so func tioning, a work of art_ The stone is normally no work of art while in the driveway, but may be so when on display in an art museum_ In the driveway, it usually performs no symbolic func tion_ In the art museum, it exemplifies certain of its proper ties-e.g., properties of shape, color,
perception as well as in real-motion perception? If so are they detectors, rather, of quick succession? If not, then visual motion does not always depend on them. In the second place, how are we able in the case of apparent motion to fill in the spot at the intervening place-times along a path running from the first to the second flash before that second flash occurs? How do we know which way to go? One intriguing hypothesis, advanced by van der Waals and Roelofs (AMP, 44), is that the
intervening motion is produced retrospectively, built only after the second } See "What the Frog's Eye Tells the Brain" by J. Y. Lettvin, H. K. Maturana, W. S. McCulloch. and W. H. Pitts, Proceeding.� of the institute of Radio Engi neers, VoL 47, (�ew York. 1959), pp. 1940-195I. See further Sec. '" and note 7' below. 74 A PUZZLE ABOUT PERCEPTION [ V,3[ flash occurs and projected backwards in time.' Kolers in his book rejects both the analogy with real-motion perception and also the
inter· secting lines or as a quite different pair or as a nest of regions, etc.; but the definientia having these disjoint extensions surely 100 THE FABRICATION OF FACTS [ VIAl cannot all be co-extensive with the definiendum. Such considerations point to a criterion framed in terms of an extensional isomorphism that requires preservation of struc ture rather than of extension. Since a structure may be common to many different extensions; this allows for legitimate alter native definientia.